The Science Behind Chlorella (80 Chlorella Research References)

Chlorella References

Chlorella and Metal Detox

Uranium

Horikoshi, T./ Nakajima, A., et al.: Uptake of uranium by various cell fractions of chlorella vulgaris. Radioisotopes 28: 485-488, 1979

Nakajima, A; Horikoshi, T; Sakagushi, T.: Recovery of uranium by immobilised micro-organisms. Evr. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech, 16: 88-91, 1982.

Lead

Protective effects of chlorella vulgaris in lead exposed mice infectedwith Listeria monocytogenes M.Queiroz et al International Immunopharmacology 3 (2003) 889-900

Cadmium

Hagino et al.: Effect of chlorella on fecal and urinary cadmium excretion in Itai-itai. Jap. J. Hyg. 30: 77, 4/1975

Nagano, T./Suketa, Y., et al.: Absorption and excretion of chlorellaellipsoidea cadmium-binding protein and inorganic cadmium in rats.Jpn. J. Hyg., 38: 741-747, 1983

Carr, H.P., Carino, F.A., et al.: Characterization of the cadmium-binding capacity of chlorella vulgaris. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 60: 433-440, 1998

Mercury

Shieh, Y.J.; Barger, J: Uptake of mercury by chlorella and its effect on potassium regulation. Planta, 109: 49-60, 1973

Klinghardt,D. :Algenpraeparat hilfreich bei der Amalgamausleitung Erfahrungsheilkunde Band 48, Heft 7, Juli 1999

D.Klinghardt and J. Mercola: Mercury toxicity and systemic elimination agents D.Klinghardt and J. Mercola, J of Nutritional and environmental Medicine (2001) 11, 53-62

Parachlorella beyerinckii CK-5 is found to accelerate excretion of methyl-mercury both into feces and urine: “Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology and Agro-chemistry” (JSBBA:http://www.jsbba.or.jp) Meeting in Nagoya City, Japan, March 29~30, 2008.

Ben-Basset,D.; Mayer, A.M.: Reduction of mercury chloride by chlorella: Evidence for a reducing factor. Physiol. Pl., 40, 157-162,1977).

Krisenon J: Inauguraldissertation (=PhD thesis) Fachbereich Chemie Universitaet GH Essen, 2002(pp. 230, 231,232, 236, 247, Ref. 922, 923, 924 u. 926, 1000-1003):Chlorella and CVE remove mercury, tin, antimonum, bismuth and arsenic (toxins) from the bloodstream and from the oral cavity

Chlorella used traditionally to save lives after environmental catastrophes

Nishijo et al: Toxicol Letters 1999; 108 (2-3): 321-7

Iwata K et al, Tohoku J Exp Med 1991; 164(2):93-102

Prof Lin, Ichiumura S: Rept Chlorella Res 1973, p 195 (only in Japanese)

Hagino N et al: Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 1975 ;30 (1):77

CVE: treatment of intestinal infections (Listeria, pathogenic e.coli and CMV) and lead toxicity:

Hasegawa, T. / Okuda, M. / Nomoto, K., et al.: Augmentation of the resistance against Listeria monocytogenes by oral administration of hot water extract of chlorella vulgaris in mice. Immnuopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 16(2): 191-202, 1994

Queiroz, M. et al: Protective effects of chlorella vulgaris extract CVE) in lead-exposed mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes . Int Immunopharmacol 2003, Jun 3(6): 889-900

Chlorella in cancer therapy

Komiyama, K.: Hirokawa, Y.; Mocota, T., et al: An acidic polysaccharide chlon A, from chlorella pyrenoidosa. Anti-tumour activity and immunological response, Chemotherapy, 34: 302-307, 1986.

Konishi, F.; Tanaka, K. ; Himeno, K., et al: Anti-tumour effect induced by a hot water extract of chlorella vulgaris: Resistance to meth-A tumour growth mediated by CE-induced polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Cancer Immunology and Immunotheraphy, 19 : 73-78, 1985.

Kuniaki, T.; Yoshifumi, T.; Tsuruta, M. et al: Oral administration of chlorella vulgaris augments concomitant anti-tumour immunity. Immuno-pharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 12 (2): 277-291,1990.

Miyazawa, Y.; Murayama, T.; Ooya, N. et al: Immunomodulation by unicellular green algae (chlorella pyrenoidosa) in tumour-bearing mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 24, 135-146, 1988.

Tanaka, K.; Konishi, F.; Himeno, K: Augmentation of anti-tumour resistance by a strain of unicellular green algae, chlorella vulgaris. Cancer Immunology and Immunotheraphy, 17: 90-94, 1984. 83

Merchant, R.E.; Rice, C.C.; Young, H.F.: Dietary chlorella pyrenoidosa for patients with malignant glioma: Effects on immunocompetence, quality of life, and survival. Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 4, No. 6, 220-230, 1990.)

Chlorella and chemical detox

Effect of chlorella pyreneidosa on fecal excretion and liver accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin in mice Chemosphere 2005;59 297-304

Pore, R.S.; Detoxification of chlordecone poisoned rats with chlorella and chlorella-derived sporopollenin. Drug. Chem. Toxicol, 7: 57-71, 1984

Urey, J.C., et al.: Bioconcentration of four pure PCB Isomers by chlorella pyrenoidosa. Bull. Envir. Contam. Toxicol 16: 81-85, 1976

Morita, K., Matsueda T., Iida, T., Hasegawa, T.: Chlorella accelerates dioxin excretion in rats. Journal of nutrition 129 (9): 1731-6, 1999

Kunimasa M., Masahiro O., Hasegawa, T.: Chlorophyll derived from chlorella inhibits dioxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and accelerates dioxin excretion in rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 109: 289, 2001

Nutr J 2006 Jun 8;5:16Nick, G. Addressing human exposure to environmental toxins with chlorella Pyrenoidosa. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. Apr 2003. (237), 28-32.

Chlorella as general supplement

Over 10 Million people take chlorella as daily supplement (ref 335) – Mason R: Altern Compl Therap, 2001;7 (3):161-165

Tamiya, N., et al.: Preliminary experiments in the use of chlorella as human food. Food Technology Vol. VIII, 4: 179-182, 1954),

CGF - optimal facial development, optimal skeletal growth and development of intelligence:

Yamagishi, Y., et al.: School children’s growth and the value of chlorophyll. Nihon Iji Shimpo, S. 2196, 1961 (in Japanese)

R.Pratt et al :Production of thiamine, riboflavin, folic acid and biotin by chlorella vulgaris und chlorella pyreneidosa J of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol 54, No.6, June 1965: chlorella contains significant amounts of: Vit B2, B3, methyl B12, D-3, Vit K, Vit C, Vit E, beta carotine and other carotinoids, all essentiell aminoacids, magnesium, iron, potassium, chlorophyll

Tokuyasu, M.: Examples of diets for infant’s and children’s nutritional guidance, and their effects of adding chlorella and C.G.F. to food schedule. Totori City, Japan: Comference proceedings at the nutritional Illness Counseling Clinic 1983, siehe auch: Jpn. J. Nutr.

41(5): 275-283, (1980 u.) 1983)

Merchant, R., Andre, C.: A review of recent clinical trials of the nutritional supplement chlorella pyrenoidosa in the treatment of fibromyalgia, hypertension, and ulcerative colitis. Alternative Therapies 7: 79, 2001)

The chlorella membrane: contents and properties

Bohumil Voelsky: Biosorption of Heavy Metals. CRC Press, 1990: several papers on the cell wall of chlorella. It contains: Hemizellulose A and B, C. P membrane contains Sporopollenin, not C.V, carotenoids, polyphenols and more

Ben-Basset,D.; Mayer, A.M.: Reduction of mercury chloride by chlorella: Evidence for a reducing factor. Physiol. Pl., 40, 157-162, 1977).

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: the protective effect of chlorella

S.Nakano et al: Maternal-fetal distribution and transfer of dioxins in pregnant women in Japan, and attempts to reduce maternal transfer with Chlorella (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) supplements Chemosphere,

April 2005

Shiro Nakano et al: Chlorella Pyreneidosa supplementation decreases Dioxin and increases Immunoglobulin A concentrations in breast milk

J Med Food 10 (1) 2007, 134-142).

Chlorella lowers lipids

A hot water extract of chlorella pyreneidosa reduces body weight and serum lipids in ovarectomized rats S.Hidaka et al Phytotherapy Research 18 (2004) 164-168

Effect of Chlorella on the level of serum cholesterol in rats C-J Wang et al, J Formosan Med Assoc 80 (1981) 929-933)

Chlorella and the intestinal tract (colitis, IBS, metal binding)

Merchant, Altern Ther Health Med. 2001 May-Jun;7(3):79-91. Merchant, R. & Andre, C. Dietary supplementation with chlorella pyrenoidosa produces positive results in patients with cancer or suffering from certain common chronic illnesses. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. Feb 2001. (211), 74-80.

Nucleotide (CGF/CVE chlorella extracts) und IBS

Nucleotide supplementation: a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of IntestAidIB in people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome [ISRCTN67764449]. (Significant improvement over placebo) Full

text:http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=151324 7&blobtype=pdf)

Dancey CP, Attree EA, Brown KF

Chlorophyll from chlorella binds toxic metals in the gut: Yun CH et al: Micros Res Tech 1997; 36(4): 313-23), Kensler TW et al: ibidem

Sporopollein from chlorella attaches itself to toxins in the intestinal mucosa and is excreted in this form together with the toxin (ref 233 pg 96): Pore, RS – Drug Chem Toxicol, 1984;7(1):57-71

Use of chlorella for toxin elimination

Guzelian PS, Z Gastroenterologie, 1984; 22:16-20, symptoms of toxicity reduced (ref 28): Biesalski HK et al: Ernaehrungsmedizin 1999, Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany)

Mercola, J. & Klinghardt, D. Mercury toxicity and systemic elimination agents. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. 2001. V. 11, 53-62.

Ray, T. The mitigation of methyl mercury vapor inhalation and exhalation in people with dental amalgam fillings. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. Nov 2002. (232), 86-88. In this study a mercury vapor analyzer is used to show that “nanonized” chlorella (Matrix Metals) and regular chlorella bind mercury

Papers in English by D. Klinghardt, MD,PhD, containing definitive references about the use of chlorella in a detoxification programme:

Klinghardt, D. Amalgam/mercury detox as a treatment for chronic viral, bacterial, and fungal illnesses. J Explore! 1997. V. 8, (3).

Klinghardt, D. The five levels of healing. J Explore! 2005. V. 14, (4).

Klinghardt, D. Metal toxicity. J Explore! 2000. V. 10 (1).

Klinghardt, D Chlorella – Erfahrungsheilkunde 1999;7:435-438

Klinghardt, D Lecture at the ETH in Zurich: Heavy Metal Toxicity, Update (with full discussion on chlorella), Oct 31, 2001 –available on video

Reference about the gold and mercury detoxifying property of chlorella in the book

“The Biosorption of Heavy Metals”; Volesky B, CRC press 1990

80 Chlorella References, unsorted

1 Aksu, Z.; T. ; The usage of chlorella vulgaris in waste water treatment containing heavy metal irons. Proc. 4th Eur. Cong. Biotech, 2, 80-83, 1987 2 Ben-Basset,D.; Mayer, A.M.: Reduction of mercury chloride by chlorella: Evidence for a reducing factor. Physiol. Pl., 40, 157-162, 1977. 3 De Filippis, L.F.; The effect of sub-lethal concentrations of mercury and zinc on chlorella IV characteristics of a general reducing enzyme system for metallic irons. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 86S: 339-352, 1978. 4 De Fillips, L.F.; Pallaghy, C.K.: The effect of sub-lethal concentrations of mercury and zinc on chlorella III. Development and possible mechanisms of resistance to metals. Pflanzenphysiol. 79S: 332-335, 1976. 5 Jensen, S.; Jenelov, A.: Biological methylation of mercury in aquatic organisms. Nature, 223: 753, 1969. 6 Nakajima, A; Horikoshi, T; Sakagushi, T.: Recovery of uranium by immobilised micro-organisms. Evr. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech, 16: 88-91, 1982. 7 Shieh, Y.J.; Barger, J: Uptake of mercury by chlorella and its effect on potassium regulation. Planta, 109: 49-60, 1973 8 Sneddon. J.; Pappas, C.P: Binding and removal of metal irons in solution by an algae biomass. Am. Environ. Lab, 10: 9-13, 1991. 9 Wilkinson, S.C.; Goulding, K.H.; Robinson, P.K. Mercury removal by immobilised Algae (Chlorella) in batch culture systems. Journal of Applied Phycology, 2:223-230, 1990. 10 Pore, R.S.; Detoxification of chlordecore poisoned rats with chlorella and chlorella-derived sporopollenin. Drug. Chem. Toxicol, 7: 57-71, 1984 11 Kojima, M.; Kasajima, t.; Imai, Y., et al: A new chlorella polysaccharide and its accelerating effect on the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system. Recent Adv. Res., 13, 11, 1973 12 Merchant, R.E.; Rice, C.C.; Young, H.F.: Dietary chlorella pyrenoidosa for patients with malignant glioma: Effects on immunocompetence, quality of life, and survival. Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 4, No. 6, 220-230, 1990. 13 Tanaka, K.; Koga, T.; Konishi, F., et al: Augmentation of host defence by a unicellular alga, chlorella vulgaris, to escherichia coli infection. Infect. Immun., 53: 267-271, 1986. 14 Ibusuki, K.; Minamishima, Y.: Effect of chlorella vulgaris extracts on murine cytomegalovirus infections. Nat. Immun. Cell Growth Regul., 9 : 121-128, 1990. 15 Kanazawa Medical College Dept. of Serology: Effects of various preparation made from chlorella pyrenoidosa cells on the defence mechanism (immune Resistance), 66-70, 1980. 16 Komiyama, K.: Hirokawa, Y.; Mocota, T., et al: An acidic polysaccharide chlon A, from chlorella pyrenoidosa. Anti-tumour activity and immunological response, Chemotherapy, 34: 302-307, 1986. 17 Konishi, F.; Tanaka, K. ; Himeno, K., et al: Anti-tumour effect induced by a hot water extract of chlorella vulgaris: Resistance to meth-A tumour growth mediated by CE-induced polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Cancer Immunology and Immunotheraphy, 19 : 73-78, 1985. 18 Kuniaki, T.; Yoshifumi, T.; Tsuruta, M. et al: Oral administration of chlorella vulgaris augments concomitant anti-tumour immunity. Immuno-pharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 12 (2): 277-291, 1990. 19 Miyazawa, Y.; Murayama, T.; Ooya, N. et al: Immunomodulation by unicellular green algae (chlorella pyrenoidosa) in tumour-bearing mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 24, 135-146, 1988. 20 Tanaka, K.; Konishi, F.; Himeno, K: Augmentation of anti-tumour resistance by a strain of unicellular green algae, chlorella vulgaris. Cancer Immunology andImmunotheraphy, 17: 90-94, 1984. 83 21 Morita, K., Matsueda T., Iida, T., Hasegawa, T.: Chlorella accelerates dioxin excretion in rats. Journal of nutrition 129 (9): 1731-6, 1999 22 Kunimasa M., Masahiro O., Hasegawa, T.: Chlorophyll derived from chlorella inhibits dioxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and accelerates dioxin excretion in rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 109: 289, 2001 23 Merchant, R., Andre, C.: A review of recent clinical trials of the nutritional supplement chlorella pyrenoidosa in the treatment of fibromyalgia, hypertension, and ulcerative colitis. Alternative Therapies 7: 79, 2001 24 Japan Food Research Laboratories, Analysis Certificate No. 100021448-010, 2000 25 Wong, S.L., et al..: Detection of toxic organometallic complexes in wastewaters using algal assays. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 32: 358-366, 1997 26 Travesio, L./ Canizares, R.O.: Heavy metal removal by microalgae. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol 62: 144-151, 1999 27 Klinghardt, D.: Schwermetalle und chronische Erkrankungen. Hier&Jetzt 3: 10-13, 2000 28 Urey, J.C., et al.: Bioconcentration of four pure PCB Isomers by chlorella pyrenoidosa. Bull. Envir. Contam. Toxicol 16: 81-85, 1976 29 Palacios, Mayorga S., et al.: Algunas modificationes al aislamiento y cultivo de chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck. Rev. Lat-amer. Microbiol 19: 95-103, 1977 30 Chang, J.: Wild swans – three daughters of China. New York, Simon Schuster, 1991 31 Spoehr, H.A./ Milner, H.W.: Plant. Physiol. 24: 120f., 1949 32 Tamiya, N., et al.: Preliminary experiments in the use of chlorella as human food. Food Technology Vol. VIII, 4: 179-182, 1954 33 Hagino et al.: Effect of chlorella on fecal and urinary cadmium excretion in Itai-itai. Jap. J. Hyg. 30: 77, 4/1975 34 Mündliche Mitteilung während der 3rd International Exhibition & Conference of Vitafoods International, 03.-05.05.2000 in Genf, Schweiz 35 Isidori, A., et al.: A study of human growth hormone (HGH) release in man after oral administration of amino acids. Current-Medical Research and Opinion, 7, 1981 36 Fried, R./ Merrel, W.C.: The arginine solution, New York: Warner Books, 1999 37 Lombard, J./ Germano, C.: The brain wellness plan, New York: Kensington Publishing, 1997 38 Kojima, M./ Shishido, K., et al.: A clorella polysaccharide as a factor stimulating RES activity. J. reticuloendothel Soc., 14(2): 192-208, 1973 39 Kojima, M./ Kasajima, Y.: A new chlorella polysaccharide and its accelerating effect on the phagozytose activity of the reticuloendothelial system. Recent Adv. R.E.S., 13: 11, 1973 40 Matusiak, K./ Krzywicka, A.: Influence of the extract of chlorella vulgaris on growth of fungi. Acta Microbiologica Polonica Ser. B, 7(24), No.1: 51-54, 1975 41 Forest, W.: Ullmanns Enzyklopädie der technischen Chemie, München/Berlin Verlag Urban & Schwarzenberg, 136-141, 1956 42 Popp, F.A.: Das Licht in unseren Zellen, 6.Auflage, Verlag Zweitausendeins, 1995 43 Koch, H.P./ Hühnler, G.:Chlorophyll – Blattgrün als Arzneimittel, Deutscher Apotheker Verlag, 1995 44 Economics Club: Latest report on functional study of chlorella. Nihonbashi, Japan (unveröffentlicht), 25.06.1997 45 Yasukawa, K./ Akihisa, T., et al.: Inhibitory effects of sterols isolated from chlorella vulgaris on 12-0-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and tumor promotion in mouse skin. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 19(4): 573-576, 1996 46 Vortrag von Dr. Tahao Iida (Health Ecology Research Lab., Fukoka, Japan [July 9-10th, 1998]: Chlorella has remarkable effects of excreting dioxin out of the body. Sonderdruck aus Health Life Business Magazine 179, 1998 47 Jensen, B.: Chlorella, Jewel of the Far East. Escondido/CA, USA: Bernard Jensen Publisher, 1992 48 Koerber/Männle/Leitzmann: Vollwerternährung – Konzeption einer zeitgemäßen Ernährung. Heidelberg: Haug Verlag, 1994 49 Epstein, S.S.: The politics of cancer revisited, New York: East Ridge Press, 1998 50 Singh, A./ Singh, S.P., et al.: Inhibitory potential of chlorella vulgaris (E-2S) on mouse skin papillomagenesis and xenobiotic detoxicartion system. Anticancer Research, 19: 1887-1892, 1999 51 Nagano, T./Suketa, Y., et al.: Absorption and excretion of chlorella ellipsoidea cadmium-binding protein and inorganic cadmium in rats. Jpn. J. Hyg., 38: 741-747, 1983 52 Carr, H.P., Carino, F.A., et al.: Characterization of the cadmium-binding capacity of chlorella vulgaris. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 60: 433-440, 1998 53 Horikoshi, T./ Nakajima, A., et al.: Uptake of uranium by various cell fractions of chlorella vulgaris. Radioisotopes 28: 485-488, 1979 54 Nach Pinnang Soong in Shelef/Soeder (Hrsg.): Algae Biomass, North-Holland: Biomedical Press, 1980 55 Tanaka, K./ Yamada, A./ Noda, K., et al.: A novel glycoprotein obtained from chlorella vulgaris strain CK22 shows antimetastatic immunopotentiation. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 45: 313-320, 1998 56 Konishi, F./ Mitsuyama, M./ Okuda, M., et al.: Protective effect of an acidic glycoprotein obtained from culture of chlorella vulgaris against myelosuppression by 5-fluorouracil. Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 42: 268-274, 1996 57 Noda, K./ Tanaka, K., et al.: A water-soluble antitumor glycoprotein from chlorella vulgaris. Planta medica, 62: 423-426, 1996 58 Fujimaki, M., et al.: About C.G.F., Effects on actions of chlorella cell itself, Tokyo, Japan: People’s scientific Research Center at Koganei (unveröffentlichter Bericht) 59 Hasegewa, T./ Okuda, M./ Makino, M., et al.: Hot water extracts of chlorella vulgaris reduce opportunistic infection with listeria monocytogenes in C57BL/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukaemia viruses. Inter. J. of Immunopharmacology, 17(6): 505-512, 1995 60 Watzl, B./ Leitzmann, C.: Bioaktive Substanzen in Lebensmitteln, Stuttgart: Hippokrates-Verlag, 1999 61 Lee, W.H./ Rosenbaum, M.: Chlorella – The sun-powered supernutrient an dits benefiial properties. A good Health Guide, New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing, 1987 62 Huang, S.-W./ Kondo, N.: Studies on the effect of feeding edible microalgae to honey bee colonies. Res. Inst. Evolut. Biol. Sci. Rep., (8): 57-83, 1996 63 Yamagishi, Y., et al.: School children’s growth and the value of chlorophyll. Nihon Iji Shimpo, S. 2196, 1961 (in japanischer Sprache) 64 Tokuyasu, M.: Examples of diets for infant’s and children’s nutritional guidance, and their effects of adding chlorella and C.G.F. to food schedule. Totori City, Japan: Comference proceedings at the nutritional Illness Counseling Clinic 1983, siehe auch: Jpn. J. Nutr. 41(5): 275-283, (1980 u.) 1983 65 Statistics and Information Departement: Abridged life table for Japan, average expectancy 1945-1992. Minister’s Secretariat, Ministry Health Welfare: Japanese Government, 1992 66 Miner, J.A.: Mechanisms for nutritional inhibition of carcinogenesis in: Moon, T.E., Micozzi, M.S. (Hrsg.): Nutrition and cancer prevention: Investigating the roles of micronutritient, New York: Marcel Dekker, 1989 67 Harman, D.: The biologic clock: the mitochondria? 20(4), 145-147, 1972 68 Harmann, D.: Free radical involvement in aging. Pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Drugs Aging, 3(1): 60-80, 1993 69 Dokumentation der besonderen Therapieeinrichtungen und natürlichen Heilweisen in Europa, Bd. 5, Halbbd. 1, ZDN, Zentrum zur Dokumentation für Naturheilverfahren e.V. (im Auftrag des niedersächsischen Ministerium für Wirtschaft, Technologie und Verkehr), 1992 70 Siehe Pauling, L.: Pauling’s Vitamin-Programm. München: Bertelsmann Verlag, 1990 71 Hasegawa, T./ Okuda, M./ Nomoto, K., et al.: Augmentation of the resistance against Listeria monocytogenes by oral administration of hot water extract of chlorella vulagris in mice. Immnuopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 16(2): 191-202, 1994 72 Hasegawa, T./ Yoshikai, Y./ Okuda, M. et al.: Accelerated restoration of the leukocyte number and augmented resistance against Escherichia coli in cyclophosphamide-treated rats orally administered with a hot water extract of chlorella vulgaris. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 12(8), 883-891, 1990 73 Konishi , F./ Tanaka, K., et al.: Enhanced resistance against Escherichia coli infection by subcutaneous administration of hot-water extract of chlorella vulgrais in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, 32(1): 1-7, 1990 74 Hasegawa, T./ Tanaka, K., et al.: Augmentation of the resistance against Escherichia Coli by administration of hot-water extract of chlorella vulgaris in rats. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 11(8): 971-976, 1989 75 Konishi, F./ Tanaka, K. et al.: Antitumor effect induced by a hot water extract of chlorella vulgaris (CE): Resistance to Meth-A tumor growth mediated by CE-induced polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, 19(2): 73-78, 1985 76 Tanaka, K./ Konishi, F./ Himeno, K., et al.: Augmentation of antitumor resistance by a strain of unicellular green algae, chlorella vulgaris. 17(2): 90-94, 1984 77 Hasegawa, T./ ito, K., et al.: Oral administration of hot water of chlorella vulgaris reduces IgE production against milk casein in mice. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 21(5): 311-323, 1999 78 Tanaka, K./ Yamada, A./ Noda, K., et al.: Oral administration of a unicellular green algae, chlorella vulgaris, prevents stress-induced ulcer. Planta medica, (63): 465-466, 1997 79 Volesky, B.: Biosorption of heavy metals. CRC Press, Florida: Boca Raton, 1990 80 Pfeiffer, C.C.: Nährstoff-Therapie bei psychischen Störungen – The Golden Pamphlet, Heidelberg: Haug-Verlag, 1993

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